m1 = 1kg, m2 = 2kg, x2 = 1, x1 = 0,

m3 = 3kg, x3=1/2

Y

y1 = 0, y2 = 0, y3 = 3 / 2 The position of centre of mass is

m x m 2 x 2 m 3 x 3 m1y1 m 2 y 2 m3 y 3 C.M = 1 1 , m1 m 2 m3 m1 m 2 m3

2.

3.

1m

B

–10

0.96×10

m 104° 52°

m1 H

X

0.96×10–10m

52°

Q (0, 0)

H m2

L/10

Let ‘O’ (0,0) be the origin of the system. Each brick is mass ‘M’ & length ‘L’. Each brick is displaced w.r.t. one in contact by ‘L/10’ The X coordinate of the centre of mass O

4.

C

m3

y1 = 0 y2 = 0 –10 y3= (0.96 × 10 ) cos 52°

(0.96 10 10 ) sin 52 (0.96 10 10 ) sin 52 16 0 0 0 16 y 3 , = 1 1 16 18

(1, 1)

(0, 0)

m1x1 m 2 x 2 m 3 x 3 m1y1 m 2 y 2 m3 y 3 , m1 m 2 m 3 m1 m 2 m3

= 0, 8 / 9 0.96 10 10 cos 52 o

1m

1m

(1 0) (2 1) (3 1 / 2) (1 0) (2 0) (3 ( 3 / 2)) , = 1 2 3 1 2 3 7 3 3 from the point B. = , 12 12 Let be the origin of the system In the above figure –10 x1 = – (0.96×10 )sin 52° m1 = 1gm, –10 x2 = – (0.96×10 )sin 52° m2 = 1gm, x3 = 0 The position of centre of mass

1 3 , 2 2

A

L

L L L L 2L L 3L L 3L L L L L m m m m m m m 2 2 10 2 10 2 10 2 10 10 2 10 2 Xcm 7m L L L L L L 3L L L L L L = 2 2 10 2 5 2 10 2 5 2 10 2 7 7L 5L 2L 35L 5L 4L 44L 11 = 2 10 5 = = = L 7 70 35 10 7 Let the centre of the bigger disc be the origin. 2R = Radius of bigger disc m2 m1 R = Radius of smaller disc 2 m1 = R × T × R 2 m2 = (2R) I T × O (0, 0) (R, 0) where T = Thickness of the two discs = Density of the two discs The position of the centre of mass 9.1

X

Chapter 9

m1x1 m 2 x 2 m1y1 m 2 y 2 , m1 m 2 m1 m 2 x1 = R y1 = 0 y2 = 0 x2 = 0

5.

R 2 TR R 0 R 2 TR 0 , ,0 ,0 R 2 T (2R)2 T m m 5R 2 T 5 1 2 At R/5 from the centre of bigger disc towards the centre of smaller disc. Let ‘0’ be the origin of the system. R = radius of the smaller disc 2R = radius of the bigger disc The smaller disc is cut out from the bigger disc As from the figure 2 x1 = R y1 = 0 m1 = R T 2 x2 = 0 y2 = 0 m2 = (2R) T 00 R 2 TR 0 , The position of C.M. = R 2 T (2R)2 TR m m 1 2

6.

m1

O (0, 0)

R (R, 0)

R 2 TR R = , 0 = , 0 3R 2 T 3 C.M. is at R/3 from the centre of bigger disc away from centre of the hole. Let m be the mass per unit area. 2 Mass of the square plate = M1 = d m d2 m 4 Let the centre of the circular disc be the origin of the system. Position of centre of mass

Mass of the circular disc = M2 =

3 d2md (d2 / 4)m 0 0 0 d m 4d , = ,0 = ,0 = d2m (d2 / 4)m M1 M2 4 d2m1 4

7.

m2

d/2

=

d/2

(d, 0)

O (0, 0) (x2, y2)

d/2 (x , y ) 1 1

0.4m/s

1m/s

4d The new centre of mass is right of the centre of circular disc. 4 v 1 = –1.5 cos 37 ˆi – 1.55 sin 37 ˆj = – 1.2 ˆi – 0.9 ˆj m1 = 1kg. m2 = 1.2kg. v 2 = 0.4 ˆj m3 = 1.5kg v 3 = – 0.8 ˆi + 0.6 ˆj m4 = 0.5kg v 4 = 3 ˆi 1kg 37° m5 = 1kg v 5 = 1.6 ˆi – 1.2 ˆj m v m 2 v 2 m 3 v 3 m 4 v 4 m5 v 5 So, v c = 1 1 1.5m/s m1 m 2 m3 m 4 m5 =

M1

d

M1

37° 1.5kg

1.2kg

1( 1.2ˆi 0.9ˆj ) 1.2(0.4ˆj ) 1.5( 0.8 ˆi 0.6ˆj ) 0.5(3ˆi ) 1(1.6ˆi 1.2ˆj ) 5 .2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 1.2 i 0.9 j 4.8 j 1.2 i .90 j 1.5ˆi 1.6ˆi 1.2ˆj

5 .2

0.7ˆi 0.72ˆj = 5 .2 5. 2

05kg

3m/s

1kg

37° 2m/s

9.2

Chapter 9 8.

Two masses m1 & m2 are placed on the X-axis m2 = 20kg. m1 = 10 kg, The first mass is displaced by a distance of 2 cm m x m2 x 2 10 2 20 x 2 X cm 1 1 = m1 m 2 30

20 20 x 2 20 + 20x2 = 0 30 20 = – 20x2 x2 = –1. nd The 2 mass should be displaced by a distance 1cm towards left so as to kept the position of centre of mass unchanged. Two masses m1 & m2 are kept in a vertical line m2 = 30kg m1 = 10kg, The first block is raised through a height of 7 cm. The centre of mass is raised by 1 cm. m y m2 y 2 10 7 30 y 2 1= 1 1 = m1 m 2 40 0=

9.

70 30 y 2 70 +30y2 = 40 30y2 = – 30 y2 = –1. 40 The 30 kg body should be displaced 1cm downward inorder to raise the centre of mass through 1 cm. 10. As the hall is gravity free, after the ice melts, it would tend to acquire a spherical shape. But, there is no external force acting on the system. So, the L centre of mass of the system would not move. M m 11. The centre of mass of the blate will be on the symmetrical axis. R 2 2 4R 2 R12 4R1 2 3 2 3 y cm 2 2 R 2 R1 2 2 1=

= =

(2 / 3)R 2 3 (2 / 3)R1 / 2(R 2

2

R12 )

3

=

2 2 4 (R 2 R1 )(R 2 R1 R1R 2 ) 3 (R 2 R1 )(R 2 R1 )

R2

R1

2 2 4 (R 2 R1 R1R 2 ) above the centre. 3 R1 R 2

m2 = 40kg , m3 = 50kg, 12. m1 = 60kg, Let A be the origin of the system. Initially Mr. Verma & Mr. Mathur are at extreme position of the boat. The centre of mass will be at a distance 60 0 40 2 50 4 280 = = 1.87m from ‘A’ = A 150 150 When they come to the mid point of the boat the CM lies at 2m from ‘A’. 40kg 60kg The shift in CM = 2 – 1.87 = 0.13m towards right. But as there is no external force in longitudinal direction their CM would not shift. So, the boat moves 0.13m or 13 cm towards right. 13. Let the bob fall at A,. The mass of bob = m. The mass of cart = M. Initially their centre of mass will be at m m L M 0 m = L Mm M m A Distance from P When, the bob falls in the slot the CM is at a distance ‘O’ from P. 9.3

P

B 20kg

M

Chapter 9

mL mL = – towards left Mm Mm mL towards right. = Mm But there is no external force in horizontal direction. mL So the cart displaces a distance towards right. Mm 14. Initially the monkey & balloon are at rest. So the CM is at ‘P’ When the monkey descends through a distance ‘L’ The CM will shift m L M 0 mL = from P to = Mm Mm mL So, the balloon descends through a distance Mm 15. Let the mass of the to particles be m1 & m2 respectively m2 = 4kg m1 = 1kg, According to question 2 2 ½ m1v1 = ½ m2v2 Shift in CM = 0 –

m1 v 2 2 v 2 2 m2 v1 v1 Now,

m1 v 1 m2 v2

m1v 1 m m2 1 m2 v 2 m2 m1

m1 m2

=

M

L

mg

m2 m1 1

= 1/2

4

m1v 1 =1:2 m2 v 2 7

16. As uranium 238 nucleus emits a -particle with a speed of 1.4 × 10 m/sec. Let v2 be the speed of the residual nucleus thorium 234. m1v1 = m2v2 7 4 × 1.4 × 10 = 234 × v2

4 1.4 10 7 5 = 2.4 × 10 m/sec. 234 17. m1v1 = m2v2 24 50 × 1.8 = 6 × 10 × v2 50 1.8 –23 v2 = = 1.5 × 10 m/sec 6 10 24 –23 so, the earth will recoil at a speed of 1.5 × 10 m/sec. –27 18. Mass of proton = 1.67 × 10 p a e Let ‘Vp’ be the velocity of proton –26 Given momentum of electron = 1.4 × 10 kg m/sec –27 Given momentum of antineutrino = 6.4 × 10 kg m/sec a) The electron & the antineutrino are ejected in the same direction. As the total momentum is conserved the proton should be ejected in the opposite direction. –27 –26 –27 –27 1.67 × 10 × Vp = 1.4 × 10 + 6.4 × 10 = 20.4 × 10 Vp = (20.4 /1.67) = 12.2 m/sec in the opposite direction. r b) The electron & antineutrino are ejected to each other. e Total momentum of electron and antineutrino, v2 =

= (14)2 (6.4)2 10 27 kg m/s = 15.4 × 10

–27

–27

Since, 1.67 × 10 So Vp = 9.2 m/s

–27

Vp = 15.4 × 10

kg m/s

a

kg m/s p

9.4

Chapter 9 19. Mass of man = M, Initial velocity = 0 Mass of bad = m Let the throws the bag towards left with a velocity v towards left. So, there is no external force in the horizontal direction. The momentum will be conserved. Let he goes right with a velocity mv MV v= ..(i) mv = MV V = M m Let the total time he will take to reach ground =

Then the time of his flying = t1 – t2 =

2H / g –

2(H h) / g

2(H h) / g =

h

pound

Hard ground

2H / g = t1

Let the total time he will take to reach the height h = t2 =

h

2/g H Hh

Within this time he reaches the ground in the pond covering a horizontal distance x x =V×tV=x/t v=

g M M x = m m t 2 H Hh

As there is no external force in horizontal direction, the x-coordinate of CM will remain at that position. M ( x ) m x1 M 0= x1 = x m Mm The bag will reach the bottom at a distance (M/m) x towards left of the line it falls. 20. Mass = 50g = 0.05kg v = 2 cos 45° ˆi – 2 sin 45° ˆj v1 = – 2 cos 45° ˆi – 2 sin 45° ˆj a) change in momentum = m v – m v 1

v

= 0.05 (2 cos 45° ˆi – 2 sin 45° ˆj ) – 0.05 (– 2 cos 45° ˆi – 2 sin 45° ˆj ) 45°

= 0.1 cos 45° ˆi – 0.1 sin 45° ˆj +0.1 cos 45° ˆi + 0.1 sin 45° ˆj

45°

= 0.2 cos 45° ˆi magnitude =

0 .2 2

2

0 .2

=

2

= 0.14 kg m/s

c) The change in magnitude of the momentum of the ball – Pi – Pf = 2 × 0.5 – 2 × 0.5 = 0.

y1

21. Pincidence = (h/) cos ˆi – (h/) sin ˆj x1

PReflected = – (h/) cos ˆi – (h/) sin ˆj

PR – h/cos

P1 – h/cos

x

The change in momentum will be only in the x-axis direction. i.e.

P = (h/) cos – ((h/) cos ) = (2h/) cos

PR – h/

22. As the block is exploded only due to its internal energy. So net external force during this process is 0. So the centre mass will not change. Let the body while exploded was at the origin of the co-ordinate system. If the two bodies of equal mass is moving at a speed of 10m/s in + x & +y axis direction respectively, 2

2

o

P1 – h/sin = PR y

x

10 10 210 .10 cos 90 = 10 2 m/s 45° w.r.t. + x axis If the centre mass is at rest, then the third mass which have equal mass with other two, will move in the opposite direction (i.e. 135° w.r.t. + x- axis) of the resultant at the same velocity. 23. Since the spaceship is removed from any material object & totally isolated from surrounding, the missions by astronauts couldn’t slip away from the spaceship. So the total mass of the spaceship remain unchanged and also its velocity.

9.5

Chapter 9 3

3

24. d = 1cm, v = 20 m/s, u = 0, = 900 kg/m = 0.9gm/cm 3 3 3 volume = (4/3)r = (4/3) (0.5) = 0.5238cm mass = v = 0.5238 × 0.9 = 0.4714258gm mass of 2000 hailstone = 2000 × 0.4714 = 947.857 3 Rate of change in momentum per unit area = 947.857 × 2000 = 19N/m Total force exerted = 19 × 100 = 1900 N. 25. A ball of mass m is dropped onto a floor from a certain height let ‘h’. v1 =

v1 = 0, v2 = 2gh & v2 = 0

2gh ,

Rate of change of velocity :F=

m 2 2gh t

v=

2gh , s = h,

v=0

v = u + at 2gh = g t t = Total time 2 F=

2h t

m 2 2gh 2h 2 g

2h g

= mg

26. A railroad car of mass M is at rest on frictionless rails when a man of mass m starts moving on the car towards the engine. The car recoils with a speed v backward on the rails. Let the mass is moving with a velocity x w.r.t. the engine. The velocity of the mass w.r.t earth is (x – v) towards right Vcm = 0 (Initially at rest) 0 = –Mv + m(x – v)

M M m Mv = m(x – v) mx = Mv + mv x = v x = 1 v m m 27. A gun is mounted on a railroad car. The mass of the car, the gun, the shells and the operator is 50m where m is the mass of one shell. The muzzle velocity of the shells is 200m/s. Initial, Vcm = 0. 200 0 = 49 m × V + m × 200 V = m/s 49 200 m/s towards left. 49 When another shell is fired, then the velocity of the car, with respect to the platform is, 200 V` = m/s towards left. 49 When another shell is fired, then the velocity of the car, with respect to the platform is, 200 v` = m/s towards left 48

200 200 Velocity of the car w.r.t the earth is m/s towards left. 48 49 28. Two persons each of mass m are standing at the two extremes of a railroad car of mass m resting on a smooth track. Case – I Let the velocity of the railroad car w.r.t the earth is V after the jump of the left man. 0 = – mu + (M + m) V 9.6

Chapter 9 V=

mu towards right M m

Case – II When the man on the right jumps, the velocity of it w.r.t the car is u. U1st U2nd 0 = mu – Mv’ ‘–ve’ ‘+ve’ mu v = M (V is the change is velocity of the platform when platform itself is taken as reference assuming the car to be at rest) So, net velocity towards left (i.e. the velocity of the car w.r.t. the earth)

mv mv mMu m 2 v Mmu m2v = = M Mm M(M m) M(M m) A small block of mass m which is started with a velocity V on the horizontal part of the bigger block of mass M placed on a horizontal floor. Since the small body of mass m is started with a velocity V in the horizontal direction, so the total initial momentum at the initial position in the horizontal direction will remain same as the total final momentum at the point A on the bigger block in the horizontal direction. v A From L.C.K. m: m mv mv + M×O = (m + M) v v = Mm Mass of the boggli = 200kg, VB = 10 km/hour. Mass of the boy = 2.5kg & VBoy = 4km/hour. If we take the boy & boggle as a system then total momentum before the process of sitting will remain constant after the process of sitting. mb Vb = mboyVboy = (mb + mboy) v 200 × 10 + 25 × 4 = (200 +25) × v 2100 28 v= = = 9.3 m/sec 225 3 Mass of the ball = m1 = 0.5kg, velocity of the ball = 5m/s Mass of the another ball m2 = 1kg Let it’s velocity = v m/s Using law of conservation of momentum, 0.5 × 5 + 1 × v = 0 v = – 2.5 st Velocity of second ball is 2.5 m/s opposite to the direction of motion of 1 ball. Mass of the man = m1 = 60kg Speed of the man = v1 = 10m/s Mass of the skater = m2 = 40kg let its velocity = v 60 × 10 + 0 = 100 × v v = 6m/s 2 loss in K.E.= (1/2)60 ×(10) – (1/2)× 100 × 36 = 1200 J Using law of conservation of momentum. m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v(t) + m2v nd Where v = speed of 2 particle during collision. m1u1 + m2u2 = m1u1 + m1 + (t/∆t)(v1 – u1) + m2v m u m t 222 1 ( v 1 u1 )v m2 t m m t ( v 1 u) v = u 2 1 m 2 t =

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34. Mass of the bullet = m and speed = v Mass of the ball = M m = frictional mass from the ball. 9.7

Chapter 9 Using law of conservation of momentum, mv + 0 = (m+ m) v + (M – m) v1 where v = final velocity of the bullet + frictional mass mv (M m)V1 v = m m st 35. Mass of 1 ball = m and speed = v nd Mass of 2 ball = m st nd Let final velocities of 1 and 2 ball are v1 and v2 respectively Using law of conservation of momentum, m(v1 + v2) = mv. v1 + v2 = v …(1) Also …(2) v1 – v2 = ev Given that final K.E. = ¾ Initial K.E. 2 2 2 ½ mv1 + ½ mv2 = ¾ × ½ mv 2 2 2 v1 + v2 = ¾ v

v1 v 2 2 v1 v 2 2

1 e v 2

2 2

3 2 v 4

3 2 3 1 1 2 2 v 1+e = e = e= 4 2 2 2 36. Mass of block = 2kg and speed = 2m/s nd Mass of 2 block = 2kg. nd Let final velocity of 2 block = v using law of conservation of momentum. 2 × 2 = (2 + 2) v v = 1m/s Loss in K.E. in inelastic collision 2 2 = (1/2) × 2 × (2) v – (1/2) (2 + 2) ×(1) = 4 – 2 = 2 J Maximum loss b) Actual loss = = 1J 2 2 2 2 (1/2) × 2 × 2 – (1/2) 2 × v1 + (1/2) × 2× v2 = 1 2 2 4 – (v1 + v2 ) = 1

4

2

(1 e 2 ) 4 1 2 2

2(1 + e ) =3 1 + e

2

=

3 1 1 2 e = e= 2 2 2

37. Final K.E. = 0.2J 2 2 2 Initial K.E. = ½ mV1 + 0 = ½ × 0.1 u = 0.05 u mv1 = mv2 = mu st nd Where v1 and v2 are final velocities of 1 and 2 block respectively. v1 + v2 = u …(1) (v1 – v2) + ℓ (a1 – u2) = 0 ℓa = v2 – v1 ..(2) u1= u. u2 = 0, Adding Eq.(1) and Eq.(2) 2v2 = (1 + ℓ)u v2 = (u/2)(1 + ℓ) u u v1 = u 2 2 u v1 = (1 – ℓ) 2 2 2 Given (1/2)mv1 +(1/2)mv2 = 0.2 2 2 v1 + v2 = 4 9.8

100 g

u1

100 g

u2 = 0

Chapter 9

u2 u2 u2 8 2 (1 )2 (1 )2 4 (1 2 ) = 4 u = 4 4 2 1 2 For maximum value of u, denominator should be minimum, ℓ = 0.

2

u = 8 u = 2 2 m/s For minimum value of u, denominator should be maximum, ℓ=1 2 u = 4 u = 2 m/s 38. Two friends A & B (each 40kg) are sitting on a frictionless platform some distance d apart A rolls a ball of mass 4kg on the platform towards B, which B catches. Then B rolls the ball towards A and A catches it. The ball keeps on moving back & forth between A and B. The ball has a fixed velocity 5m/s. a) Case – I :– Total momentum of the man A & the ball will remain constant d 0 = 4 × 5 – 40 × v v = 0.5 m/s towards left sm/s b) Case – II :– When B catches the ball, the momentum between the B & the o ball will remain constant. 4 × 5 = 44v v = (20/44) m/s B A Case – III :– When B throws the ball, then applying L.C.L.M (core -1) ‘–ve’ ‘+ve’ 44 × (20/44) = – 4 × 5 + 40 × v v = 1m/s (towards right) Case – IV :– When a Catches the ball, the applying L.C.L.M.

10 m/s towards left. 11 c) Case – V :– When A throws the ball, then applying L.C.L.M. 44 × (10/11) = 4 × 5 – 40 × V V = 60/40 = 3/2 m/s towards left. Case – VI :– When B receives the ball, then applying L.C.L.M 40 × 1 + 4 × 5 = 44 × v v = 60/44 m/s towards right. Case – VII :– When B throws the ball, then applying L.C.L.M. 44 × (66/44) = – 4 × 5 + 40 × V V = 80/40 = 2 m/s towards right. Case – VIII :– When A catches the ball, then applying L.C.L.M – 4 × 5 – 40 × (3/2) = – 44 v v = (80/44) = (20/11) m/s towards left. Similarly after 5 round trips The velocity of A will be (50/11) & velocity of B will be 5 m/s. d) Since after 6 round trip, the velocity of A is 60/11 i.e. > 5m/s. So, it can’t catch the ball. So it can only roll the ball six. e) Let the ball & the body A at the initial position be at origin. 40 0 4 0 40 d 10 XC = = d 40 40 4 11 –4 × 5 + (–0.5)× 40 = – 44v

39. u =

v=

B

A d

2gh = velocity on the ground when ball approaches the ground.

u = 2 9 .8 2 v = velocity of ball when it separates from the ground. v u 0 u v ℓ =

2 9 . 8 1 .5 2 9 .8 2

=

3 3 = 4 2 2

E2 E 2 40. K.E. of Nucleus = (1/2)mv = (1/2) m = 2mc 2 mc Energy limited by Gamma photon = E. Decrease in internal energy = E

E2 2mc

2

9.9

linear momentum = E/c V

M

Chapter 9 41. Mass of each block MA and MB = 2kg. st Initial velocity of the 1 block, (V) = 1m/s VB = 0m/s VA = 1 m/s, Spring constant of the spring = 100 N/m. The block A strikes the spring with a velocity 1m/s/ After the collision, it’s velocity decreases continuously and at a instant the whole system (Block A + the compound spring + Block B) move together with a common velocity. Let that velocity be V. 2 2 2 2 2 Using conservation of energy, (1/2) MAVA + (1/2)MBVB = (1/2)MAv + (1/2)MBv + (1/2)kx . 2 2 2 2 (1/2) × 2(1) + 0 = (1/2) × 2× v + (1/2) × 2 × v + (1/2) x × 100 (Where x = max. compression of spring) 2 2 1 = 2v + 50x …(1) As there is no external force in the horizontal direction, the momentum should be conserved. MAVA + MBVB = (MA + MB)V. 2×1=4×v V = (1/2) m/s. …(2) 2 m/s Putting in eq.(1) 2kg 2kg 1 = 2 × (1/4) + 50x+2+ 2 A B (1/2) = 50x 2 2 x = 1/100m x = (1/10)m = 0.1m = 10cm. 42. Mass of bullet m = 0.02kg. Initial velocity of bullet V1 = 500m/s 500 m/s Mass of block, M = 10kg. Initial velocity of block u2 = 0. Final velocity of bullet = 100 m/s = v. Let the final velocity of block when the bullet emerges out, if block = v. mv1 + Mu2 = mv + Mv 0.02 × 500 = 0.02 × 100 + 10 × v v = 0.8m/s After moving a distance 0.2 m it stops. change in K.E. = Work done 2 0 – (1/2) × 10× (0.8) = – × 10 × 10 × 0.2 =0.16 43. The projected velocity = u. The angle of projection = . st When the projectile hits the ground for the 1 time, the velocity would be the same i.e. u. Here the component of velocity parallel to ground, u cos should remain constant. But the vertical component of the projectile undergoes a change after the collision. u u sin e= v = eu sin . v u u sin Now for the 2nd projectile motion,

U = velocity of projection =

(u cos )2 (eu sin )2 –1

and Angle of projection = = tan or tan = e tan

eu sin –1 = tan (e tan ) a cos

…(2)

Because, y = x tan –

gx 2 sec 2

…(3) 2u 2 2 2 2 Here, y = 0, tan = e tan , sec = 1 + e tan 2 2 2 2 2 And u = u cos + e sin Putting the above values in the equation (3), 9.10

u cos

Chapter 9 x e tan = x= x=

gx 2 (1 e 2 tan 2 ) 2u 2 (cos 2 e 2 sin 2 )

2eu 2 tan (cos 2 e 2 sin2 ) g(1 e 2 tan 2 ) 2eu 2 tan cos 2 eu 2 sin 2 = g g

So, from the starting point O, it will fall at a distance =

u 2 sin 2 u 2 sin 2 eu 2 sin 2 = (1 e) g g g

44. Angle inclination of the plane = M the body falls through a height of h, The striking velocity of the projectile with the indined plane v = 2gh Now, the projectile makes on angle (90° – 2) Velocity of projection = u =

2gh

Let AB = L. So, x = ℓ cos , y = – ℓ sin From equation of trajectory, y = x tan –

A

gx 2 sec 2 2u 2

– ℓ sin = ℓ cos . cot 2 –

g 2 cos 2 sec 2 (90 o 2) 2 2gh

g 2 cos 2 cos ec 2 2 4gh

cos 2 cos ec 2 2 = sin + cos cot 2 4h

ℓ= =

ℓ

– ℓ sin = ℓ cos . tan (90° – 2) –

So,

4h cos 2 cos ec 2 2

4h sin2 2 cos 2 sin cos 2 sin 2 cos

(sin + cos cot 2) =

4h 4 sin2 cos 2 sin sin 2 cos cos 2 cos 2 = 8h sin = 16 h sin × sin 2 2 sin cos cos 2

45. h = 5m,

= 45°,

e = (3/4)

Here the velocity with which it would strike = v =

2g 5 = 10m/sec

After collision, let it make an angle with horizontal. The horizontal component of velocity 10 cos 45° will remain unchanged and the velocity in the perpendicular direction to the plane after wllisine. Vy = e × 10 sin 45° 1 = (3.75) 2 m/sec = (3/4) × 10 × 2

Vx = 10 cos 45° = 5 2 m/sec So, u =

2

Vx Vy

2

=

50 28.125 =

78.125 = 8.83 m/sec

3.75 2 = tan–1 3 = 37° Angle of reflection from the wall = tan 5 2 4 Angle of projection = 90 – ( + ) = 90 – (45° + 37°) = 8° Let the distance where it falls = L x = L cos , y = – L sin Angle of projection () = –8° –1

9.11

A

ℓ

Chapter 9 Using equation of trajectory, y = x tan – – ℓ sin = ℓ cos × tan 8° –

gx 2 sec 2 2u 2

g cos 2 sec 2 8 2 u2

– sin 45° = cos 45° – tan 8° –

10 cos 2 45 sec 8 (8.83)2

()

Solving the above equation we get, ℓ = 18.5 m. 46. Mass of block Block of the particle = m = 120gm = 0.12kg. In the equilibrium condition, the spring is stretched by a distance x = 1.00 cm = 0.01m. 0.2 × g = K. x. 2 = K × 0.01 K = 200 N/m. The velocity with which the particle m will strike M is given by u = 2 10 0.45 = 9 = 3 m/sec. So, after the collision, the velocity of the particle and the block is 0.12 3 9 = m/sec. V= 0.32 8 Let the spring be stretched through an extra deflection of . 2 2 0 –(1/2) × 0.32 × (81/64) = 0.32 × 10 × – ( 1/2 × 200 × ( + 0.1) – (1/2) × 200 × (0.01) Solving the above equation we get = 0.045 = 4.5cm 47. Mass of bullet = 25g = 0.025kg. Mass of pendulum = 5kg. The vertical displacement h = 10cm = 0.1m Let it strike the pendulum with a velocity u. Let the final velocity be v. mu = (M + m)v. 0.025 m u v= u = u = 5.025 201 (M m) Using conservation of energy. 2

0 – (1/2) (M + m). V = – (M + m) g × h

u2 (201)2

= 2 × 10 × 0.1 = 2

u = 201 × 2 = 280 m/sec. 48. Mass of bullet = M = 20gm = 0.02kg. Mass of wooden block M = 500gm = 0.5kg Velocity of the bullet with which it strikes u = 300 m/sec. Let the bullet emerges out with velocity V and the velocity of block = V As per law of conservation of momentum. ….(1) mu = Mv+ mv Again applying work – energy principle for the block after the collision, 2 0 – (1/2) M × V = – Mgh (where h = 0.2m) 2 V = 2gh V =

2gh =

20 0.2 = 2m/sec

Substituting the value of V in the equation (1), we get\ 0.02 × 300 = 0.5 × 2 + 0.2 × v V=

6 .1 = 250m/sec. 0.02 9.12

m

M x

Chapter 9 49. Mass of the two blocks are m1 , m2. Initially the spring is stretched by x0 Spring constant K. For the blocks to come to rest again, Let the distance travelled by m1 & m2 Be x1 and x2 towards right and left respectively. As o external forc acts in horizontal direction, …(1) m1x1 = m2x2 Again, the energy would be conserved in the spring. 2 2 (1/2) k × x = (1/2) k (x1 + x2 – x0) xo = x1 + x2 – x0 x1 + x2 = 2x0 …(2)

2m 2 x1 = 2x0 – x2 similarly x1 = m1 m 2 m1(2x0 – x2) = m2x2

x

x2 m2

x 0

2m1x0 – m1x2 = m2x2

50. a) Velocity of centre of mass =

x1 m1

2m1 x 0 x2 = m1 m 2

m 2 v 0 m1 0 m2 v 0 = m1 m 2 m1 m 2

b) The spring will attain maximum elongation when both velocity of two blocks will attain the velocity of centre of mass. d) x maximum elongation of spring. Change of kinetic energy = Potential stored in spring. 2

m2 v 0 K 2 v0 = (1/2) kx2 (1/2) m2 v0 – (1/2) (m1 + m2) ( m1 m2 m1 m 2 1/ 2 m2 m1m 2 2 1 2 × v0 m2 v0 m m = kx x = 1 2 m1 m 2 51. If both the blocks are pulled by some force, they suddenly move with some acceleration and instantaneously stop at same position where the elongation of spring is maximum. Let x1, x2 extension by block m1 and m2 Total work done = Fx1 + Fx2 …(1) 2 Increase the potential energy of spring = (1/2) K (x1+ x2) …(2) Equating (1) and (2) 2F 2 F(x1 + x2) = (1/2) K (x1+ x2) (x1+ x2) = K Since the net external force on the two blocks is zero thus same force act on opposite direction. m1x1 = m2x2 …(3) 2F And (x1+ x2) = K m1 K x2 = 1 F F m2 m1 m2 Substituting

m1 2F × 1 + x1 = m2 K

m 2F x11 1 m K 2 Similarly x2 =

x1 =

2F m 2 K m1 m 2

2F m1 K m1 m 2

9.13

Chapter 9 52. Acceleration of mass m1 =

F1 F2 m1 m 2

Similarly Acceleration of mass m2 =

F2 F1 m1 m 2

Due to F1 and F2 block of mass m1 and m2 will experience different acceleration and experience an inertia force. Net force on m1 = F1 – m1 a K F2 F F2 m F m 2F1 m1F1 F2m1 m F m1F2 F1 m1 m2 = 11 = 2 1 = F 1 – m1 × 1 m1 m 2 m1 m 2 m1 m 2 Similarly Net force on m2 = F2 – m2 a F F1 m F m 2F2 m F m 2F2 m 2F2 F1m 2 = 1 2 = 1 2 = F 2 – m2 × 2 m1 m 2 m1 m 2 m1 m 2 If m1 displaces by a distance x1 and x2 by m2 the maximum extension of the spring is x1 + m2. Work done by the blocks = energy stored in the spring., m F m1F2 m F m1F2 2 2 1 × x1 + 2 1 × x2 = (1/2) K (x1+ x2) m1 m 2 m1 m 2 x1+ x2 =

2 m2F1 m1F2 K m1 m 2

53. Mass of the man (Mm) is 50 kg. Mass of the pillow (Mp) is 5 kg. When the pillow is pushed by the man, the pillow will go down while the man goes up. It becomes the external force on the system which is zero. acceleration of centre of mass is zero velocity of centre of mass is constant As the initial velocity of the system is zero. Mm × V m = M p × V p …(1) Given the velocity of pillow is 80 ft/s. Which is relative velocity of pillow w.r.t. man. Vp / m = Vp Vm = Vp – (–Vm) = Vp + Vm Vp = Vp / m – Vm Putting in equation (1) Mm × Vm = Mp ( Vp / m – Vm)

pillow

50 × Vm = 5 × (8 – Vm)

8 = 0.727m/s 11 Absolute velocity of pillow = 8 – 0.727 = 7.2 ft/sec. S 8 Time taken to reach the floor = = = 1.1 sec. v 7 .2 As the mass of wall >>> then pillow The velocity of block before the collision = velocity after the collision. Times of ascent = 1.11 sec. Total time taken = 1.11 + 1.11 = 2.22 sec. 54. Let the velocity of A = u1. Let the final velocity when reaching at B becomes collision = v1. 2 2 (1/2) mv1 – (1/2)mu1 = mgh 10 × Vm = 8 – Vm Vm =

2

2

v1 – u1 = 2 gh

v1 =

2gh u12

A

…(1)

B

When the block B reached at the upper man’s head, the velocity of B is just zero. For B, block 2

2

(1/2) × 2m × 0 – (1/2) × 2m × v = mgh

v= 9.14

h

h

2gh

Chapter 9 Before collision velocity of uA = v1,

uB = 0.

After collision velocity of vA = v (say)

vB =

2gh

Since it is an elastic collision the momentum and K.E. should be coserved. m × v1 + 2m × 0 = m × v + 2m × v1 – v = 2

2gh

2gh 2

2

2

Also, (1/2) × m × v1 + (1/2) I 2m × 0 = (1/2) × m × v + (1/2) ×2m × 2

2

v1 – v = 2 ×

2gh ×

2gh

2

…(2)

2gh

Dividing (1) by (2)

2 2gh 2gh ( v 1 v )( v 1 v ) = v1 + v = (v1 v ) 2 2gh

…(3)

2gh

Adding (1) and (3) 2v1 = 3

3 2gh v1 = 2

2gh

But v1 =

3 2gh u2 = 2

2gh

2

2gh + u = u = 2.5

9 2gh 4

2gh

So the block will travel with a velocity greater than 2.5 2gh so awake the man by B. 55. Mass of block = 490 gm. Mass of bullet = 10 gm. Since the bullet embedded inside the block, it is an plastic collision. Initial velocity of bullet v1 = 50 7 m/s. Velocity of the block is v2 = 0. Let Final velocity of both = v. 10 × 10

–3

× 50 ×

7 + 10

–3

–3

× 190 I 0 = (490 + 10) × 10

× VA

VA = 7 m/s. When the block losses the contact at ‘D’ the component mg will act on it.

mVB 2 = mg sin (VB) = gr sin …(1) r Puttin work energy principle 2 2 (1/2) m × (VB) – (1/2) × m × (VA) = – mg (0.2 + 0.2 sin ) 2

(1/2) × gr sin – (1/2) ×

7

2

= – mg (0.2 + 0.2 sin )

3.5 – (1/2) × 9.8 × 0.2 × sin = 9.8 × 0.2 (1 + sin ) 3.5 – 0.98 sin = 1.96 + 1.96 sin sin = (1/2) = 30° Angle of projection = 90° - 30° = 60°. time of reaching the ground =

MVB2/r

D O

2h g

2 (0.2 0.2 sin 30) = 0.247 sec. 9 .8 Distance travelled in horizontal direction. =

s = V cos × t =

gr sin t =

9.8 2 (1 / 2) 0.247 = 0.196m

Total distance = (0.2 – 0.2 cos 30°) + 0.196 = 0.22m. 9.15

90°- B 490gm C

10gm

Chapter 9 56. Let the velocity of m reaching at lower end = V1 From work energy principle. 2 2 (1/2) × m × V1 – (1/2) × m × 0 = mg ℓ v1 = 2g . Similarly velocity of heavy block will be v2 = 2gh . v1 = V2 = u(say) Let the final velocity of m and 2m v1 and v2 respectively. According to law of conservation of momentum. m × x1 + 2m × V2 = mv1 + 2mv2 m × u – 2 m u = mv1 + 2mv2 v1 + 2v2 = – u …(1) Again, v1 – v2 = – (V1 – V2) v1 – v2 = – [u – (–v)] = – 2V …(2) Subtracting.

u = 3 Substituting in (2)

3v2 = u v2 =

m

m

2g 3

v1 – v2 = - 2u v1 = – 2u + v2 = –2u +

50g 5 u 5 = - u = – 2g = – 3 3 3 3

b) Putting the work energy principle 2 2 (1/2) × 2m × 0 – (1/2) × 2m × (v2) = – 2m × g × h [ h height gone by heavy ball] 2g (1/2) =ℓ×h h= 9 9 2 2 Similarly, (1/2) × m × 0 – (1/2) × m × v1 = m × g × h2 [ height reached by small ball] 50g 25 (1/2) × = g × h2 h 2 = 9 9 Someh2 is more than 2ℓ, the velocity at height point will not be zero. And the ‘m’ will rise by a distance 2ℓ. 57. Let us consider a small element at a distance ‘x’ from the floor of length ‘dy’ . M dx So, dm = L So, the velocity with which the element will strike the floor is, v =

2gx

M

So, the momentum transferred to the floor is, M M = (dm)v = dx 2gx [because the element comes to rest] L (Initial position) So, the force exerted on the floor change in momentum is given by, dM M dx = 2gx F1 = L dt dt dx Because, v = = 2gx (for the chain element) dt M M 2Mgx 2gx 2gx = 2gx = F1 = L L L Again, the force exerted due to ‘x’ length of the chain on the floor due to its own weight is given by, Mgx M (x) g = W= L L dx So, the total forced exerted is given by, x 2Mgx Mgx 3Mgx F = F1 + W = = L L L L

9.16

Chapter 9 58. V1 = 10 m/s V2 = 0 V1, v2 velocity of ACB after collision. a) If the edlision is perfectly elastic. mV1 + mV2 = mv1 + mv2 10 + 0 = v1 + v2 v1 + v2 = 10 …(1) …(2) Again, v1 – v2 = – (u1 – v2) = – (10 – 0) = –10 Subtracting (2) from (1) 2v2 = 20 v2 = 10 m/s. The deacceleration of B = g Putting work energy principle 2 2 (1/2) × m × 0 – (1/2) × m × v2 = – m × a × h 100 2 – (1/2) × 10 = - g × h h= = 50m 2 0.1 10 b) If the collision perfectly in elastic. m × u1 + m × u2 = (m + m) × v 10 m × 10 + m × 0 = 2m × v v= = 5 m/s. 2 The two blocks will move together sticking to each other. Putting work energy principle. 2 2 (1/2) × 2m × 0 – (1/2) × 2m × v = 2m × g × s

52 =s s = 12.5 m. 0.1 10 2 59. Let velocity of 2kg block on reaching the 4kg block before collision =u1. Given, V2 = 0 (velocity of 4kg block). From work energy principle, 2 2 (1/2) m × u1 – (1/2) m × 1 = – m × ug × s

10 m/s

m A

B u = 0.1

1 m/s

4kg 2kg u1 1 u 1 =–2×5 – 16 = 1 u = 0.2 u = 0.2 16cm 2 4 2 –2 64 × 10 = u1 – 1 u1 = 6m/s Since it is a perfectly elastic collision. Let V1, V2 velocity of 2kg & 4kg block after collision. m1V1 + m2V2 = m1v1 + m2v2 2 × 0.6 + 4 × 0 = 2v1 + 4 v2 v1 + 2v2 = 0.6 …(1) …(2) Again, V1 – V2 = – (u1 – u2) = – (0.6 – 0) = –0.6 Subtracting (2) from (1) v2 = 0.4 m/s. 3v2 = 1.2 v1 = – 0.6 + 0.4 = – 0.2 m/s st Putting work energy principle for 1 2kg block when come to rest. 2 2 (1/2) × 2 × 0 – (1/2) × 2 × (0.2) = – 2 × 0.2 × 10 × s (1/2) × 2 × 0.2 × 0.2 = 2 × 0.2 × 10 × s S1 = 1cm. Putting work energy principle for 4kg block. 2 2 (1/2) × 4 × 0 – (1/2) × 4 × (0.4) = – 4 × 0.2 × 10 × s 2 × 0.4 × 0.4 = 4 × 0.2 × 10 × s S2 = 4 cm. Distance between 2kg & 4kg block = S1 + S2 = 1 + 4 = 5 cm. 60. The block ‘m’ will slide down the inclined plane of mass M with acceleration a1 g sin (relative) to the inclined plane. The horizontal component of a1 will be, ax = g sin cos , for which the block M will accelerate towards left. Let, the acceleration be a2. According to the concept of centre of mass, (in the horizontal direction external force is zero). max = (M + m) a2

2

2

9.17

Chapter 9

ma x mg sin cos = …(1) Mm Mm So, the absolute (Resultant) acceleration of ‘m’ on the block ‘M’ along the direction of the incline will be, a = g sin - a2 cos a2 =

= g sin –

mg sin cos 2 = g sin Mm

m

m cos 2 1 M m

h a2

M m m cos 2 = g sin Mm M m sin2 So, a = g sin M m

M

a2

…(2)

m

g sin

a2 = g sin cos

Let, the time taken by the block ‘m’ to reach the bottom end be ‘t’. 2 Now, S = ut + (1/2) at

h 2 2 = (1/2) at t= sin a sin So, the velocity of the bigger block after time ‘t’ will be.

m

Vm = u + a2t =

mg sin cos Mm

2h = a sin

g sin

2m 2 g2h sin 2 cos 2 (M m)2 a sin

Now, subtracting the value of a from equation (2) we get,

2m 2 g2h sin 2 cos 2 (M m) VM = 2 2 (M m) sin g sin (M m sin ) 2m 2 g2h cos 2 or VM = 2 (M m)(M m sin ) 61. h1

1/ 2

1/ 2

C vy B

v2 v1

v h

v1

m

M

A

The mass ‘m’ is given a velocity ‘v’ over the larger mass M. a) When the smaller block is travelling on the vertical part, let the velocity of the bigger block be v1 towards left. From law of conservation of momentum, (in the horizontal direction) mv = (M + m) v1 mv v1 = Mm b) When the smaller block breaks off, let its resultant velocity is v2. From law of conservation of energy, 2 2 2 (1/2) mv = (1/2) Mv1 + (1/2) mv2 + mgh M 2 2 2 v2 = v – v1 – 2gh ..(1) m M m2 2 2 = v 1 2 v2 m (M m) – 2gh

(m 2 Mm m 2 ) 2 v2 = v 2gh 2 (M m)

1/ 2

9.18

Chapter 9 e) Now, the vertical component of the velocity v2 of mass ‘m’ is given by, 2 2 2 vy = v2 – v1 =

(M2 Mm m2 ) 2 m2 v 2 v 2gh 2 (M m) (M m)2 mv ] M v

[ v1 =

M2 Mm m2 m2 2 v 2gh (M m)2

2

vy =

Mv 2 2gh …(2) (M m) To find the maximum height (from the ground), let us assume the body rises to a height ‘h’, over and above ‘h’. 2

vy =

2

Now, (1/2)mvy = mgh1 h1 =

v y2 2g v y2

So, Total height = h + h1 = h +

2g

…(3) =h+

mv 2 –h (M m)2g

[from equation (2) and (3)]

mv 2 (M m)2g d) Because, the smaller mass has also got a horizontal component of velocity ‘v1’ at the time it breaks off from ‘M’ (which has a velocity v1), the block ‘m’ will again land on the block ‘M’ (bigger one). Let us find out the time of flight of block ‘m’ after it breaks off. During the upward motion (BC), 0 = vy – gt1 H=

t1 =

vy g

=

1 Mv 2 2gh g (M m)

1/ 2

…(4) [from equation (2)]

So, the time for which the smaller block was in its flight is given by, T = 2t1 =

2 Mv 2 2(M m)gh g (M m)

1/ 2

So, the distance travelled by the bigger block during this time is, S = v1 T =

mv 2 [Mv 2 2(M m)gh]1 / 2 Mm g (M m)1/ 2

2mv [Mv 2 2(M m)gh]1/ 2 g(M m)3 / 2 62. Given h < < < R. 24 Gmass = 6 I 10 kg. 24 Mb = 3 × 10 kg. Let Ve Velocity of earth Vb velocity of the block. The two blocks are attracted by gravitational force of attraction. The gravitation potential energy stored will be the K.E. of two blocks. 1 1 2 2 G pim = (1/2) me × ve + (1/2) mb × vb R (h / 2) R h or S =

Again as the an internal force acts. m V Ve = b b …(2) MeVe = mbVb Me 9.19

Chapter 9 Putting in equation (1)

1 2 Gme × mb 2R h R h 2

= (1/2) × Me ×

mb v b Me 2

R Earth

2

2

h

Block

2

× ve + (1/2) Mb × Vb

m = 6 × 1024

m = 3 × 1024

2 M = (1/2) × mb × Vb b 1 Me 2R 2h 2R h 2 GM = (1/2) × Vb × (2R h)(R h)

3 10 24 6 10 24 1

GM h 2 2 = (1/2) × Vb ×(3/2) 2 2R 3Rh h

As h < < < R, if can be neglected

GM h 2gh 2 = (1/2) × Vb ×(3/2) Vb = 3 2R 2 63. Since it is not an head on collision, the two bodies move in different dimensions. Let V1, V2 velocities of the bodies vector collision. Since, the collision is elastic. Applying law of conservation of momentum on X-direction. v1 mu1 + mxo = mv1 cos + mv2 cos v1 cos a + v2 cos b = u1 …(1) u1 Putting law of conservation of momentum in y direction. 0 = mv1 sin – mv2 sin m X v1 sin = v2 sin …(2) u2 = m 2 2 2 0 Again ½ m u1 + 0 = ½ m v1 + ½ m x v2 2 2 2 u1 = v1 + v2 …(3) v2 Squaring equation(1) 2 2 2 2 2 u1 = v1 cos + v2 cos + 2 v1v2 cos cos Equating (1) & (3) 2 2 2 2 2 2 v1 + v2 = v1 cos + v2 cos + 2 v1v2 cos cos 2 2 2 v1 sin + v2 sin = 2 v1v2 cos cos v sin 2 2 × cos cos 2v1 sin = 2 × v1 × 1 sin

sin sin = cos cos cos ( + ) = 0 = cos 90° 64.

cos cos – sin sin = 0 ( + = 90°

v cos v sin v

r

r

2

r 2

Let the mass of both the particle and the spherical body be ‘m’. The particle velocity ‘v’ has two components, v cos normal to the sphere and v sin tangential to the sphere. After the collision, they will exchange their velocities. So, the spherical body will have a velocity v cos and the particle will not have any component of velocity in this direction. [The collision will due to the component v cos in the normal direction. But, the tangential velocity, of the particle v sin will be unaffected] v 2 So, velocity of the sphere = v cos = r 2 [from (fig-2)] r v And velocity of the particle = v sin = r * * * * * 9.20